Il quotidiano Yomiuri Shimbun ha svolto un sondaggio che ha evidenziato come otti di queste stazioni su dieci (finanziate da aziende locali o dalla collaborazione tra privati e uffici pubblici) effettua regolarmente esercitazioni, per riuscire a reagire meglio quando arriva il momento.
FM radio stations boost antidisaster preparednessHo trovato diversi documenti interessanti sulle community radio giapponesi e sul loro ruolo, molto positivo anche per la loro capacità di aggregazione e servizio. Una breve descrizione si trova in questo documento di AMARC, mentre un lungo articolo è stato scritto, in inglese, da Tomoko Kanayama, della Keio University. Il testo completo si trova qui, quella che segue è un breve estratto:
The Yomiuri Shimbun
OSAKA--More than 90 percent of community-based FM radio stations nationwide have strengthened preparations for disasters by conducting broadcast drills and collaborating with local governments, a Yomiuri Shimbun survey has learned.
The survey also shows that about 80 percent of the community-based FM broadcasters have provided emergency programming during past disasters, and served as information centers, while most express concern about staff shortages.
Many community-based FM stations have sprung up since the 1995 Great Hanshin Earthquake.
Since they began operating in the country in 1992, authorization for a new station to open must come from the internal affairs and communications minister. Many of the broadcasters are financed by local businesses or run by semi-public joint venture companies.
Their role as a means of providing up-to-date disaster information to the public began attracting public attention after the 1995 quake. Currently, there are 216 such stations in Tokyo and 44 prefectures.
The survey was conducted via mail in November on 191 member firms of the Japan Community Broadcasting Association, and garnered responses from 106 stations, 55 percent of those solicited, in 40 prefectures.
Of the respondents, 102 stations, or 96 percent, viewed their mission as providers of information during disasters, indicating awareness of their role in dispensing detailed information concerning relief goods, shops that remain open for business and public safety issues for disaster victims.
Indeed, 79 percent of the respondents have provided emergency broadcasts during past typhoons and other disasters.
(Jan. 14, 2008)
This study explores how community radio plays a role in revitalizing local communities in Japan.
Community Ties and Revitalization: The role of Community Radio in Japan
Author: Tomoko KANAYAMA
Tomoko KANAYAMA is associate professor at the Institute of Media and Communications Research, Keio University
This study explores how community radio plays a role in revitalizing local communities in Japan. Since the massive Kobe earthquake in 1995, community radio has played a vital role in providing local information needed by victims of natural disasters. Local governments have also realised the importance of this mass communication medium and have supported them financially. Ordinary people have used community radio to revitalise local communities, many of which have gone into steady decline. Some people perceive community radio as a public space in which local people happen to meet each other, exchange opinions and express thoughts. Others see it as a useful tool for promoting local culture as well as business. While most community radio stations have faced difficulties in financial management, expectations regarding community radio have grown in local communities. Thus, the number of community radio stations has been increasing, and reached 200 by the end of 2006.
Short recent history of community radio
In Japan, community radio uses low-power and differs from regular AM and FM radio. Until 1995, a transmission power of only 1 watt was permitted for transmission powere of community FM, so local residents could not fuly enjoy community radio. It was also very expensive to open a community radio that government financing was required. But due to the low transmitting power, local government was not interested in financing them. This changed with the Kobe earthquake in 1995, where several tiny community radio stations in played important roles in relieving the disaster, particularly helping foreigners living in Japan who did not understand Japanese. Right after the earthquake, the government allowed an increase in transmitting power from 1 watt to 10 watts. This resulted in a boom in opening community FM stations in those days. In 1999, transmitting power was increased to 20 watts. Finally in 2004, a large earthquake occurred in Niigata-Chuetsu. This disaster once again became an alarm to local communities and governments to think about the effectiveness of community media, including community FM, CATV and net communities for preventing and responding to disasters.
In addition to responding to disasters, community radio is also expected to help revitalise the community. Recent civic movements that emerged after the Kobe earthquake have encouraged citizens to use community media for constructing better local autonomy. These movements influenced the licensing practise and the first community FM station operated by a non profit organisation was born in Kyoto in 2003. Community radio stations operated by nonprofit organisations are quite notable in terms of operation, public access and programming.
Ma forse la cosa migliore è lasciar parlare una di queste stazioncine, esempio molto eloquente di come un mezzo "obsoleto" come la radio in FM analogica (che schifo, eh?) può essere ancora molto utile. Radio FMYY di Kobe 77,8 MHz (nello spettro FM solo giapponese) trasmette in dieci lingue, tra cui l'inglese. Ecco come FMYY si presenta sul suo sito Web:
Ｍany foreign citizens suffered as a result of the Great Hanshin Earthquake. Soon after the earthquake hit, the Radio FMYY was developed. FMYY was established by the various abilities of citizens from Kobe City's Nagata Ward as a tool to provide multi-lingual disaster information and to be a forum for community activities. FMYY broadcasts in 10 different languages to the local community and is one of many NGOs that joined together in a single community structure named Takatori Community Center.
Remarks by Junichi Hibino, Representative of FMYY
FMYY acts as a bridge between the minority communities and the non-minority elite. Local non-minority elites (such as local politicians) listen to FMYY. Thus, we work as an agent for the voices of the minority community to be heard by those in political power. Our values ensure that we provide information for the local community rather than entertainment. Furthermore, we uphold our citizen-based approach to represent foreigners, activists, minorities and people with disabilities.